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Nathan Garfinkel, of Detroit, standing. Jakob Lederman, of Forest Hills, New York, seated. Lederman fled Chmielnik after Germany's invasion of Poland. In Lvov Lederman met the Garfinkels older half-brother, Isaac, who had served in the Polish Army. Isaac Garfinkel likely died in a Nazi work camp near Lvov. Lederman survived World War II as a slave laborer in the Soviet Union. Left behind in Poland, Nathan Garfinkel toiled in much worse camps, narrowly escaping death countless times.
Photographer David Poller of San Diego.